1Department that Dermatology, Odense university Hospital, Odense, and 2National Allergy study Centre, 2Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, college of Copenhagen, Ledreborg Allé 40, 1, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark. *E-mail: hesos

Sir,

Several hair styling procedures, because that example, bleaching and also dyeing that the hair, involve applications of chemicals that are highly toxic to the skin (1). When allergic contact dermatitis due to hair care products is often described (1–5), only a couple of cases that burns brought about by hair treatment chemicals have been report (6–10). We present here 2 situations of burns come the scalp native a bleaching product and also a hair dye.

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Case 1

A 12-year-old girl had the hair on her vertex bleached professionally and also experienced a severe chemical burn from the bleaching product. The product to be a mix the bleach and colour. The hair on the top of the scalp to be aggregated v a rubber band and also the bleaching product applied to the hair. The treated area was occluded with a plastic bag. Some hairdressers use this an approach of bleaching to speed up the process. The treatment typically lasts 40 min, yet in this situation it to be discontinued after ~ 20–30 min because the patient felt unwell and also experienced a stinging pains on the scalp where the hair to be being bleached. When the plastic bag to be removed, vapour emanated native the scalp and the area was instantly rinsed with cold water. Within the next days necrosis showed up on the scalp, causing a sharply demarcated crust, i beg your pardon after couple of weeks ended up being detached along with the hair, leaving an oval-shaped ulcer measuring 9×9 centimeter (Fig. 1). Plastic surgical treatment with excision of the ulcer base and placing of a skin graft to be performed.

The patient was patch-tested number of months later on with the european standard series and a barber tray, with an adverse results.


Fig. 1. Scalp wound that a 12-year-old girl one month after experienced hair bleaching.


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Case 2

A 26-year-old woman had permanent dark red hair highlights brought out in ~ a hairdressing salon. She had actually had her hair dyed several times before without problems. Half an hour right into the procedure she competent a stinging, burning pain ~ above the scalp localized to the region where the dye chemicals were applied and she put her head under cold, running water to lull the pain. She went directly to the emergency ward and also was prescribed ache relievers and a tar shampoo. In the next few days she proficient fever, facial erythema, swelling of the neck and developed a 2×3 centimeter corrosion top top the scalp with discharge the pus. As scar organization was generated, no hair development remained in the corroded area. The patient was patch-tested with the european standard series and a hairdresser tray, and all was negative except nickel, which was not pertinent to this case. It to be concluded that the burn was resulted in by a toxicity reaction to the hair dye chemicals. No information about the product ingredients to be obtained.

DISCUSSION

The literature on chemical burns is limited. One is a case where a chemical burn to the scalp happened throughout a hair highlighting procedure (6). That is not certain why the burn occurred, yet it was speculated the the extremely irritant chemistry came right into direct contact with the skin, back the hairdresser claimed that all regime precautions had been taken. The injury was not evident until ~ a couple of weeks. Cases have additionally been described where hair treatment products induced ignition that the hair, resulting in severe burns (7–9), and also there is a situation of a non-chemical burn induced by straight scalp contact with aluminium foil used in the bleaching procedure. The foil was overheated through a hair dryer during the procedure (10).

For our situation 1 it is an extremely likely that an incorrect procedure was responsible because that the injury. It has actually not been developed why the burn in instance 2 occurred, however it is feasible that the procedure provided was responsible here too. However, it have the right to not be excluded the the product itself was somehow responsible. This 2 really severe instances remind united state of the toxicity potential of part hair treatment chemicals and also emphasize the requirement for hairdressers to follow the recommended steps with treatment in bespeak to stop injuries.

REFERENCES

1. Cronin E. Hair preparations. In: Cronin E, ed call dermatitis. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1980: p. 115–126.

2. Sosted H, Agner T, Andersen KE, Menné T. 55 situations of allergic reactions to hair dye: a descriptive, consumer complaint-based study. Call Dermatitis 2002; 47: 299–303.

3. Uter W, Lessmann H, Geier J, Schnuch A. Call allergy to ingredients of hair cosmetics in mrs hairdressers and clients – one 8-year evaluation of IVDK data. Call Dermatitis 2003; 49: 236–240.

4. Sosted H, Menné T. Allergy to 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol and also 4-amino-3-nitrophenol in a hair dye. Call Dermatitis 2005; 52: 317–319.

5. Sosted H, Johansen JD, Andersen KE, Menné T. Significant allergic hair dye reactions in 8 children. Call Dermatitis 2006; 54: 87–91.

6. Goon P, Misra A. A feasible chemical burn to the scalp following hair highlights. Burns 2005; 31: 530–531.

7. Boucher J, Raglon B, Valdez S, Haffajee M. Feasible role of chemistry hair treatment products in 10 patients with face, scalp, ear, back, neck and extremity burns. Burns 1990; 16: 146–147.

8. Wilson DI. Scalp burns in elderly women – the hazards of the perm. Burns 1999; 25: 182–183.

9. Kerner E, Matheney K, Boertman JA, Sullivan WG. Facial and also scalp burns indigenous hair activator products. J Burn treatment Rehabil 1988; 9: 524–525.

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10. Peters W. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury. J Burn treatment Rehabil 2000; 21: 96–98.