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The American Civil battle was the specifying event in our nation’s history. Between 1861 and 1865 10,000 battles and also engagements were fought across the continent, from vermont to the brand-new Mexico Territory, and beyond. Many aspects of Civil battle scholarship space still hotly debated. The truth on this page are based upon the soundest details available. We carry out facts, dates, figures, tables and clarification of usual misconceptions.

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Q. As soon as did the Civil battle begin?

The war began when the Confederates bombarded Union soldiers at ft Sumter, southern Carolina on April 12, 1861. The war finished in Spring, 1865. Robert E. Lee surrendered the last significant Confederate army to Ulysses S. Provide at Appomattox Courthouse ~ above April 9, 1865. The last fight was combated at Palmito Ranch, Texas, on may 13, 1865.

Q. Once did the Civil war end?

Robert E. Lee surrendered the last significant Confederate military to Ulysses S. Approve at Appomattox Courthouse top top April 9, 1865. The last battle was dealt with at Palmito Ranch, Texas, on might 13, 1865.

Q. What caused the polite War?

While countless still conflict the ultimate reasons of the polite War, Pulitzer Prize-winning author James McPherson writes the "The Civil battle started because of uncompromising differences between the cost-free and slave states over the strength of the national federal government to prohibit enslavement in the regions that had not yet end up being states. As soon as Abraham Lincoln won election in 1860 together the an initial Republican chairman on a platform pledging come keep slavery out the the territories, seven slave states in the deep south seceded and formed a new nation, the Confederate states of America. The just arrived Lincoln administration and many of the Northern world refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of secession. They feared the it would certainly discredit democracy and create a fatal criterion that would ultimately fragment the no-longer unified States into several small, squabbling countries."

Learn an ext about the Trigger occasions of the civil War

Q. What was the Election the 1860?

The election of 1860 was one of the most unusual in American history. In a four-way race lugged on by a break-up in the democratic Party, Abraham Lincoln"s name did no even show up on the ballot in most Southern states. In the electoral college, Lincoln solidly lugged the totally free states that the Northeast and also Northwest. Breckenridge winner the slaveholding states, through the exemption of Tennessee, Virginia, and Kentucky in the upper South, which saw Bell. Douglas, despite he do a solid reflecting in the popular vote, only took electoral votes native Missouri and new Jersey.

Abraham Lincoln that Illinois, Republican Party: 39.8%Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, Northern democratic Party: 29.5%John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky, Southern democratic Party: 18.1%John Bell the Tennessee, constitutional Union Party: 12.6%

Q. To be secession legal?

No, although it was not ruled illegal until after the war. This was a facility question in ~ the time, through able legal psychic to be found suggesting both sides, yet the United claims Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, 74 U.S. 700 (1868), established that secession was unconstitutional. Cook Justice Salmon Chase wrote in his bulk opinion that, "The ordinance that secession...and every the acts of legislature intended come give impact to that ordinance, were absolutely null. They were utterly without operation in law."

Q. What states combated for the Confederacy? once did they secede?

South Carolina - December 20, 1860Mississippi - January 9, 1861Florida - January 10, 1861Alabama - January 11, 1861Georgia - January 19, 1861Louisiana - January 26, 1861Texas - February 1, 1861Virginia - April 17, 1861Arkansas - might 6, 1861North Carolina - might 20, 1861Tennessee - June 8, 1861
These states relied heavily on farming and an farming economy, and trade with northern states and internationally.

Q. What states dealt with for the Union?

Maine, brand-new York, brand-new Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, brand-new Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon dealt with for the Union and also supported Abraham Lincoln. The northern economic climate was based upon industry; factories and production provided most of the wealth. 

Q. What were the border states?

Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri were taken into consideration Border States. 

Q. Where was the Civil war fought?

The Civil war was battled in thousands of different places, from southerly Pennsylvania come Texas; from brand-new Mexico to the Florida coast. The bulk of the fighting took place in the claims of Virginia and Tennessee. The Civil war was likewise contested on the Gulf the Mexico, and also the brown water that the Mississippi River and also its tributaries, and on the Atlantic s as far off together the coastline of France.

Q. How plenty of battles to be fought during the civil War?

Although end 10,500 army engagements emerged during the civil War, it is generally accepted that there to be 50 major battles of the polite War, with about 100 other far-reaching battles. The battles were fought in 3 theaters; the east Theater, the west Theater, and the Trans-Mississippi Theater. 

Battles the the Civil battle

Q. Why room there alternating names for Civil battle battles?

Union leaders typically named battles after ~ the nearest river or creek. Confederates frequently named battles after the nearest city or town. However these rule did not always apply; they were very dependent on the names employed by the victors, the public and also the media.

Q. What were the bloodiest battles of the polite War?

Gettysburg – 51,000 casualtiesChickamauga – 34,624 casualtiesSpotsylvania – 30,000 casualtiesThe Wilderness – 29,800 casualtiesChancellorsville – 24,000 casualtiesShiloh – 23,746 casualtiesStones River – 23,515 casualtiesAntietam – 22,717 casualtiesSecond Manassas – 22,180 casualtiesVicksburg – 19,233 casualties

Q. To be there naval battles throughout the civil War?

Yes, the North and also South waged war on the Atlantic Ocean, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in the rivers of the mainland. Noodle trade through Europe was an important to the southerly war effort, i m sorry led Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scott to order a strangling blockade well-known as the "Anaconda Plan." While southern blockade runners tested this screen, designers were inventing the an initial ironclad warships the civilization had ever seen. Top top the rivers, gunboats, coast batteries, and also island fortresses gone into the battle as both sides dealt with for control of inland arteries the were necessary to the fast transport the men and material. The Civil battle at sea, largely notably with the development of the ironclads, changed the trajectory of marine warfare around the globe. | Civil war Navies

The CSS Virginia, left, sank two wooden-hulled ships before being stopped by the USS Monitor. Library of congress

Q. What was the selection of Civil battle artillery?

Smoothbore cannons, such as the 12-pounder Napoleon, had actually a selection of around three-quarters of a mile; rifled cannons, such together the 10-pounder Parrott, had a range of one and a fifty percent miles, or about dual that that a smoothbore. Some bigger cannons and imported pieces could fire even farther. 

Q. Are there photographs that Civil war battles?

Photography was a new art kind when the polite War broke out. The cameras and also chemicals accessible at the moment were as well unwieldy and also unstable to accommodate the chaos that a battlefield. Nevertheless, a few photographs that Civil war combat do exist, including pictures of pho bombardments, gunboat broadsides, and battle smoke in ~ Nashville and also Fredericksburg. Thousands of other Civil war photographs deserve to be found online in ~ the Library of Congress. 

Q. Who won the civil War?

The Northern militaries were victorious, and also the rebellious states went back to the Union.

Q. Just how were the militaries organized?


The largest military unit is the army, i beg your pardon is sub-divided right into smaller commands. Although organization varied in between the armies, the largest sub-section of a given army was the corps, i beg your pardon was typically divided into two or more divisions, each composed of 2 or an ext brigades, which to be each made up of two or more regiments, with each regiment containing about ten service providers of ideally 100 males (but more typically close to 30). Carriers themselves were subdivided into platoons and squads prior to the military finally reached the level of the separation, personal, instance soldier. Armies were periodically grouped with each other in "departments" the were characterized by geography and operational objective. 

Q. What to be the typical soldier"s age?

The typical Union soldier was 25.8 years old; over there is no definite details on the average period of Confederate soldiers, but by the finish of the battle old men and also young boys, that otherwise would have actually stayed home, to be being pressed right into service. The average soldier on both sides to be a white, native-born, good news farmer.


Q. Exactly how much to be soldiers paid?

A white Union private made thirteen dollars a month; his black counterpart made seven dollars till Congress rectified the discrepancy in 1864. A Confederate personal ostensibly made eleven dollars a month, yet often went lengthy stretches v no pay at all.

Q. What walk soldiers eat?

Civil battle soldiers" fare varied dramatically from military to army and also throughout the food of the battle for both sides. For the most part, neither next ate an especially well. Hardtack and also coffee were the staples, in enhancement to salt pork, corn meal and also whatever fruits, vegetables and berries might be collected on the march. Numerous Confederate soldiers were in a state that near-starvation by the war"s end.

Q. What walk soldiers do in their totally free time?

When they were not drilling, which comprised a considerable portion of their time in camp, soldiers passed the moment writing letters, playing games like checkers, dominoes and also poker, drinking, smoking, whittling, making music and praying. One soldier summed it up once he created to his wife, "Soldiering is 99% boredom and 1% thin terror."

Learn an ext about Civil war Winter Encampments

Q. Just how did the breeze work?

The Confederacy describe the an initial draft in American history in April that 1862. It to be clear the the South, through a total populace of 9 million (including 4 million slaves), would have to muster every one of its manpower to repel the North, which had an 1860 population of roughly 22 million. The Confederate breeze exempted those that owned twenty slaves or more, however, arousing resentment amongst the bad whites who comprised the vast majority of the army. Abraham Lincoln describe a breeze on the northern states a year later, similarly calling on all able-bodied 18-35 year old males to serve. There were exemptions in the North, too, if those drafted can pay a far-reaching fee or provide a substitute.

Q. What duty did African-Americans pat in the war effort?

With the issuance the the Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862, African-Americans - both cost-free and runaway slaves - came forward to volunteer for the Union cause in an extensive numbers. Start in October, approximately 180,000 African-Americans, comprising 163 units, served in the U.S. Army, and 18,000 in the Navy. That month, the first Kansas Colored volunteers repulsed a Confederate attack at Island Mound, Missouri. Guys of the U.S.C.T. (United says Colored Troops) units went on to distinguish themselves top top elafilador.net east and west - at harbor Hudson, Louisiana; love husband Springs, Oklahoma; fort Wagner, southern Carolina; brand-new Market Heights, Virginia. Afri Americans constituted 10% of the whole Union military by the finish of the war, and practically 40,000 died over the food of the war.

Native Americans fought on both political parties of the polite War. Countless members of tribes dealt with for the Confederacy since they perceived the system of a confederation of claims as simpler to negotiate with, together opposed come the federal federal government who had been difficult, if not impossible, come negotiate with. Members that the "Five civilized Tribes" that the South had actually become component of Southern culture in numerous ways consisting of plantations and owning slaves. Stand Watie, a member of the Cherokee Nation, to be the highest-ranking aboriginal American on either next of the problem after earning the location of general. Together the battle continued, the Cherokee Nation split over that to support, but eventually issuing their very own Emancipation Proclamation. 

Q. To be there black color Confederate soldiers?

Slaves and complimentary blacks were current in the Confederate lines as hand servants and also manual laborers. On march 13, 1865, the Confederate conference passed a regulation to allow black males to serve in combat roles, through the supplication "that nothing in this act shall be interpreted to authorize a adjust in the relation which stated slaves chandelier bear towards their owners," i.e. That black color soldiers would still it is in slaves. On march 14, 1865 the Confederate army issued general Orders No. 14, which noted for the increasing of black color combat regiments, but there is no official army documentation that indicates these order were lugged out or that any black soldiers were ever properly enlisted in the Confederate army. There space a couple of photographs that blacks in Confederate uniforms, yet these show up to it is in hoaxes.

Learn an ext about the truths and also legends concerning "Black Confederates"

Q. What was the function of native Americans during the polite War?

Native Americans fought on both political parties of the civil War. Many members that tribes fought for the Confederacy since they regarded the system of a confederation of claims as much easier to negotiate with, as opposed come the federal government which had been difficult, if no impossible, to negotiate with. Members of the "Five civilized Tribes" that the South had become part of Southern society in countless ways consisting of plantations and owning slaves. Stand Watie, a member that the Cherokee Nation, to be the highest-ranking indigenous American on either side of the problem after earning the rank of general. Together the war continued, the Cherokee Nation split over that to support, but eventually issued their very own Emancipation Proclamation. 

Q. How plenty of soldiers battled in the polite War?

At the start of the war the northern states had a combined populace of 22 million people. The southerly states had a combined population of about 9 million. This disparity was reflected in the size of the militaries in the field. The Union forces outnumbered the Confederates approximately two to one.


Q. How plenty of soldiers died in the civil War?

Approximately 620,000 soldiers passed away from combat, accident, starvation, and condition during the civil War. This number originates from an 1889 examine of the battle performed by wilhelm F. Fox and Thomas Leonard Livermore. Both men battled for the Union. Their calculation is acquired from an exhaustive examine of the combat and casualty records created by the armies over five years that fighting. A recent study put the variety of dead together high together 850,000. Roughly 1,264,000 American soldiers have passed away in the nation"s wars--620,000 in the civil War and also 644,000 in all other conflicts. It was just as freshly as the Vietnam war that the number of American deaths in foreign wars eclipsed the number who died in the polite War.


Q. Did anybody get the Medal of respect in the civil War?

Yes. There were 1,522 Medals of respect presented to north troops, black and also white, during and also after the war. The Confederate military did not have actually combat medals. Gen. Robert E. Lee defined that the highest honor feasible was to it is in "mentioned in dispatches," in other words, to be included in an officer"s report for particularly gallant conduct. Man Singleton Mosby, the "Grey Ghost," was stated in dispatches much more than any type of other Confederate soldier.

Q. What is a casualty?

Too often, civilization take "casualty" and "fatality" to be interchangeable terms. In fact, a accident is "a military human being lost through death, wounds, injury, sickness, internment, or record or with being absent in action." Essentially, a casualty is any soldier who goes into a fight and also does no return fit come take part in the next battle. Numerous soldiers, particularly in the Confederate ranks, ended up being casualties several times: part soldiers were captured multiple times; some were hurt in non-consecutive engagements.

Q. What brought about casualties throughout a battle?



Q. What occurred to the dead?

Typically, soldiers were buried where they dropped on the battlefield. Rather were hidden near the hospitals wherein they died. At most elafilador.net, the dead to be exhumed and also moved to national or Confederate cemeteries, but since there were so countless bodies, and because that the time and effort it took to disinter them, there are indeed thousands if not tens of thousands of Civil war soldiers in unknown battlefield graves.

Q. How progressed was medicine throughout the civil War?

Two-thirds that those killed in the polite War passed away of disease. Germ theory had actually not to be widely accepted in the medical world at the moment of the Civil war and contemporary antiseptics, which could have greatly lessened the spread out of bacteria and also the outbreak the disease, did not exist. As George Worthington Adams famously wrote, “The Civil war was fought in the really last years of the clinical middle ages.” Chloroform, ether, and whiskey were the main anesthetics. Still, countless survived their wounds and also had only the specialized doctors and nurses and their selfless initiatives to thank. Medicine is one ever-evolving science. Unfortunately for those who battled in the civil War, the modern technology of warfare had surpassed the technology of health care.

Wounded at Savage"s Station. This Union hospital to be overrun through Confederate troops the job after this picture was captured. Library of congress

Q. What happened to prisoners?

More 보다 400,000 soldiers were caught over the food of the civil War. In the first years that the conflict, same numbers of recorded troops were regularly exchanged because that one another, helping to save the total variety of prisoners controllable for both sides. End the course of the war, however, that exercise faded native use. By the finish of the war, the plight of prisoners of battle on both sides had come to be bleak indeed. Hundreds of Southerners passed away in the freeze camp in ~ Elmira, brand-new York, and also the camp at Andersonville, Georgia, which organized Union prisoners, has come to be one that the most well known in the history of war. Almost as plenty of men died in bondage during the Civil battle as died fighting in Vietnam.

Q. What was Reconstruction?

Reconstruction was the duration of time in which the us government operated to reconstruct the Union and also reunite the states. Reconstruction has actually two main periods. The very first was led by president Andrew Johnson and lasted until 1867. The second was led by republic in Congress and also lasted until 1877. Johnson"s repair was categorized by discrimination regulation in the South and attacks versus blacks and Northerners visiting the South. The 2nd era was categorized through the reconstruction Amendments, aligned towards civil liberties for freshly freed former slaves. 

Q. What are some of the best Civil war books?

Battle Cry that Freedom by James McPherson -- considered by countless to it is in the finest single-volume background of the Civil battle era.

A Stillness in ~ Appomattox through Bruce Catton -- The 3rd and final volume that Catton"s critically-acclaimed Civil battle trilogy; winner of the Pulitzer Prize.

The civil War: A Narrative through Shelby Foote -- three volumes, 3 thousand pages and an ext than a million words.

The Killer Angels through Michael Shaara -- The ideal Civil war novel the the 20th century and also the catalyst behind Ken Burns" epos documentary.

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Company Aytch through Sam Watkins -- one illuminating Confederate memoir through a Tennessean who fought nearly everywhere in the west theater.

Q. Just how much battlefield land has actually the American Battlefield trust saved?

The American Battlefield Trust has actually saved tens of hundreds of acres of precious land. Inspect out our saved Lands Map to discover more!