Research and also data: Hannah Ritchie, Edouard Mathieu, Lucas Rodés-Guirao, Cameron Appel, Charlie Giattino, Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Joe Hasell, Bobbie MacDonald, Diana Beltekian, Saloni Dattani and also Max RoserWeb development: Lars Yencken, Daniel Bachler, ernst van Woerden, Daniel Gavrilov, Marcel Gerber, Matthieu Bergel, and also Jason Crawford

We are grateful to anyone whose editorial review and also expert feedback ~ above this work-related helps us to continuously enhance our occupational on the pandemic. Give thanks to you. Here you find the acknowledgements.

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Our interactive data visualizations which display the case fatality rate in each country, is update daily.

The text listed below is updated periodically. In the last upgrade we changed some that the previously content on mortality risks by age and preexisting health and wellness conditions prior to vaccines were available.


If the situation fatality rate does not tell us the risk of fatality for who infected with the disease, what does it tell us? and also how does the CFR compare through the actual mortality risk?

There space two reasons why we would suppose the CFR not to stand for the actual risk. Among them would have tendency to do the CFR an overestimate – the various other would tend to do it an underestimate.

When over there are human being who have actually the condition but are not diagnosed, the CFR will overestimate the true danger of death. With COVID-19, we think over there are numerous undiagnosed people.

As we saw above, in our discussion on the difference between total and also confirmed instances (here), we execute not understand the variety of total cases. No everyone is tested for COVID-19, so the total number of cases is higher than the number of confirmed cases.

Whenever there are cases of the condition that room not counted, the probability of dying from the an illness is reduced than the reported case fatality rate. Psychic our imagine scenario with 10 deaths and 100 cases. The CFR in that instance is 10% – yet if there in reality 500 instances (and we’ve simply missed 400 that them due to lack that testing), then the genuine risk (the IFR) is just 2%.

Or to summary in one sentence. If the number of total cases is higher than the variety of confirmed cases, then the ratio in between deaths and also total cases is smaller sized than the ratio between deaths and also confirmed cases.12

Importantly, this method that the number of tests brought out affect the CFR – you have the right to only confirm a case by experimentation a patient. So once we to compare the CFR between different countries, the differences do not only reflect rates of mortality, but likewise differences in the scale of trial and error efforts.

A second consideration is especially important in the at an early stage stages of an outbreak: once some people are currently sick and also will die of the disease, however have not died yet, the CFR will underestimate the true danger of death.

In continuous outbreaks, people who are right now sick will at some point die indigenous the disease. This means that castle are at this time counted as a case, but will only ultimately be counted as a fatality too. With the COVID-19 outbreak, it can take number of weeks for human being to go from an initial symptoms come death.

This way that the CFR in the beforehand stages is one underestimate the what it will certainly be once the outbreak has actually run its course.

Once again, we must stress what we disputed above. One needs to understand the measurement challenges and also the definitions to interpret approximates of the CFR because that COVID-19, an especially those relating to an continuous outbreak.

As comparisons, the table mirrors the case fatality prices for other condition outbreaks. The CFR the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV to be high: 10% and also 34%, respectively.13

The united state seasonal flu has actually a situation fatality price of roughly 0.1% to 0.2%.14

Sources the data presented in the table:SARS-CoV: Venkatesh, S. & Memish, Z.A. (‎2004)‎. SARS: the new difficulty to worldwide health and travel medicine. EMHJ – eastern Mediterranean health Journal, 10 (‎4-5)‎, 655-662, 2004.SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV: Munster, V. J., Koopmans, M., van Doremalen, N., valve Riel, D., & de Wit, E. (2020). A novel coronavirus arising in China—key questions for influence assessment. New England journal of Medicine, 382(8), 692-694.Seasonal flu: us Centers for an illness Control and Prevention (CDC). Influenza Burden, 2018-19.Ebola: Shultz, J. M., Espinel, Z., Espinola, M., & Rechkemmer, A. (2016). Separating epidemiological functions of the 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola virus an illness outbreak. Disaster Health, 3(3), 78-88.Ebola: civilization Health company (2020). Ebola virus disease: Factsheet.

We would choose to acknowledge and thank a variety of people in the advance of this work: Carl Bergstrom, Bernadeta Dadonaite, Natalie Dean, Joel Hellewell, Jason Hendry, Adam Kucharski, Moritz Kraemer and Eric Topol because that their really helpful and detailed comments and suggestions on previously versions of this work. Tom Chivers us would prefer to thank for his editorial review and also feedback.

And we would prefer to thank the numerous hundreds of readers who offer us feedback top top this work-related every day. Her feedback is what permits us to continuously clarify and also improve it. We very much evaluate you taking the time to write. We cannot respond come every post we receive, however we carry out read every feedback and aim to take the many beneficial ideas right into account. Thank you all.


We would because of this calculate the epidemic fatality price as:

Infection fatality hazard (IFR, in %) = x 100

Lipsitch, M., Donnelly, C. A., Fraser, C., Blake, I. M., Cori, A., Dorigatti, I., … & valve Kerkhove, M. D. (2015). Potential biases in estimating absolute and also relative case-fatality threats during outbreaks. PLoS Neglected tropical Diseases, 9(7).

World health and wellness Organization (2020). Report that the WHO-China joint Mission on Coronavirus condition 2019 (COVID-19). Available online at:

World health Organization (2020). Report of the WHO-China joint Mission ~ above Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Available online at:

The relationship in between CFR and IFR additionally depends ~ above how huge of a discrepancy over there is between the variety of confirmed and also actual deaths, but we’d intend the magnitude of undercounting the deaths to be less than because that cases.

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Hannah Ritchie, Edouard Mathieu, Lucas Rodés-Guirao, Cameron Appel, Charlie Giattino, Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Joe Hasell, Bobbie Macdonald, Diana Beltekian and also Max Roser (2020) - "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Published virtual at retrieved from: '' BibTeX citation

articleowidcoronavirus, writer = Hannah Ritchie, Edouard Mathieu, Lucas Rodés-Guirao, Cameron Appel, Charlie Giattino, Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Joe Hasell, Bobbie Macdonald, Diana Beltekian and also Max Roser, title = Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19), newspaper = Our human being in Data, year = 2020, note =