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Date:May 17, 1954 ...(Show more)Location:United States...(Show more)Context:American civil legal rights movementMcLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for higher Education...(Show more)Key People:Thurgood MarshallEarl Warren...(Show more)

Brown v. Board of Education, in full Brown v. Board of education of Topeka, case in which, on might 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously (9–0) that racial segregation in public colleges violated the Fourteenth Amendment come the Constitution, i beg your pardon prohibits the claims from denying equal protection of the legislations to any person within their jurisdictions. The decision declared that different educational framework for white and African American college student were naturally unequal. It thus rejected as inapplicable come public education and learning the “separate yet equal” doctrine, progressed by the supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), follow to which regulations mandating different public facilities for whites and also African Americans execute not hurt the equal security clause if the framework are approximately equal. Back the 1954 decision strictly applied only to public schools, the implied the segregation was no permissible in other public facilities. Thought about one of the most important rulings in the Court’s history, Brown v. Board the Education helped inspire the American polite rights movement of the late 1950s and ’60s.

Background and also case

In the so late 1940s the nationwide Association for the advance of Colored world (NAACP) began a focused effort to difficulty the segregated institution systems in assorted states, including Kansas. There, in Topeka, the NAACP encouraged a number of African American parental to try to enroll their kids in all-white schools. Every one of the parents’ requests to be refused, including that of Oliver Brown. He was told the his daughter could not to visit the surrounding white school and instead would have to enroll in an african American school far from her home. The NAACP consequently filed a class-action lawsuit. When it declared that the education and learning (including facilities, teachers, etc.) offered to african Americans to be inferior to that offered to whites, the NAACP’s main dispute was that segregation by its nature was a violation the the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal security clause. A U.S. Ar court heard Brown v. Board of Education in 1951, and it ruled against the plaintiffs. If sympathetic to several of the plaintiffs’ claims, it figured out that the institutions were similar, and also it quote the criterion set through Plessy and Gong Lum v. Rice (1927), i beg your pardon upheld the distinction of asian Americans in grade schools. The NAACP climate appealed come the U.S. Can be fried Court.

In October 1952 the Court consolidated Brown through three various other class-action school-segregation lawsuits filed through the NAACP: Briggs v. Elliott (1951) in southern Carolina, Davis v. County college Board of Prince Edward County (1952) in Virginia, and also Gebhart v. Belton (1952) in Delaware; over there was also a fifth case that to be filed independently in the ar of Columbia, Bolling v. Sharpe (1951). Similar to Brown, U.S. District courts had decided versus the plaintiffs in Briggs and also Davis, judgment on the communication of Plessy the they had not been deprived of same protection since the schools they to visit were equivalent to the all-white schools or would come to be so upon the perfect of improvements ordered through the ar court. In Gebhart, however, the Delaware can be fried Court affirmed a reduced court’s judgment that the original plaintiffs’ appropriate to equal protection had actually been violated since the african American institutions were inferior to the white institutions in almost all pertinent respects. In Bolling v. Sharpe (1951), a U.S. District court held that institution segregation did no violate the due process clause the the fifth Amendment (the equal defense clause was not relevant due to the fact that the Fourteenth modification only applies to states). The plaintiffs in Brown, Biggs, and also Davis appealed directly to the can be fried Court, while those in Gebhart and also Bolling were each granted certiorari (a writ because that the reexamination of an action of a lower court).


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An English class at Robert Russa Moton High School, Farmville, Virginia. A variety of students in ~ the all-Black college were plaintiffs in the lawsuit Davis v. County institution Board of Prince Edward County (1952).

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Brown v. Board the Education was said on December 9, 1952. The attorney because that the plaintiffs was Thurgood Marshall, who later came to be the first African American to serve on the can be fried Court (1967–91). The instance was reargued top top December 8, 1953, to attend to the concern of whether the framers that the Fourteenth Amendment would certainly have taken it to be inconsistent v racial segregation in publicly education. The 1954 decision discovered that the historical proof bearing on the concern was inconclusive.