The DASS is a 21- or 42-item measure up designed to evaluate the an essential symptoms that depression, anxiety and also tension/stress.

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an essential Descriptions The DASS assesses negative emotional symptoms by utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 come 3. It has actually 3 subscales (depression, anxiety, and also stress) with 14 items in every subscale because that the DASS 42. These subscales are scored by the enhancement of the total item scores, which can selection from 0 to 42. The DASS-21 is a streamlined version the the full test through 7 items in each subscale. A higher score on the DASS indicates greater severity or frequency of these an adverse emotional symptoms. Maximum score: 63 for the 21-item DASS; 126 for the 42-item DASS.
variety of Items

42 or 21

Time to provide


forced Training No training
age Ranges


18 - 64


Elderly Adult

65 +

instrument Reviewers

Initially the review by Daniel Chellette, SPT, Jarod Hill, SPT, Emily Kemp, SPT, Claire McCormick, SPT, ann McLean, SPT, Stacie Morris, SPT, Morgan Mowery, SPT, Matt Rossman, SPT, Elizabeth Schuppert, SPT, Justin Zych, SPT, and also Rebecca Schuck, SPT.

experienced Association referral

(From the DASS Website)

If over there is just one missing item, one can average end the remaining items because that the range in question. Also many lacking items (>2 missing items every 14-item scale) might compromise the validity that the DASS and the subject need to be omittedTo educate individuals on depression, anxiety and also stress, take into consideration listing crucial symptoms and also pointing the end that everyone occasionally experiences some degree of every scale, but they have to ask for assist if they feel them strongly or frequently. If taking a check on a computer, carry out not provide automated interpretation/calculation come usersIt is unlikely that the variable structure will certainly vary between groups; as such norms room irrelevant for special populations. Instead, emphasis on whether the team in question is qualified of understanding items and also responding in one unbiased wayBeware the exaggerations and also disguising the symptoms- no lied scale developed into the DASS; think about a different measure if this is doubt in stimulate to counteract this type of biasPatient must have the ability to speak, understand, and read the language that the test. Also, must have the ability to write and fill out the measure up

Patients with low earlier pain (LBP):

(Haggman et al, 2004)

An early stage evaluation should consist the two concerns to display screen for depression in LBP

1. “During the past month, have you regularly been bothered by feeling down, depressed or hopeless?”

2. “During the previous month, have actually you to be bothered by small interest or satisfied in act things?” optimistic responses to this questions should recommend that the clinician demands to pay close attention to the progress and effectiveness the the interventions given. If development seems stunted through depressive symptom administering the DASS - 21 is then offered as a follow - up. If a patience scores in the severe to extremely severe category (21 - 42), the clinician should consider a psychological referral. DASS - 21 can also be supplied if someone v a an adverse response come the 2 question display is failing come respond come an treatment or if other clinical signs of depression space observed (insomnia, fatigue, load change)

Patients Diagnosed v Chronic exhaustion Syndrome (CFS) in ~ the Fatigue company at the Royal complimentary Hospital in London, UK (>18 y/o):

(Lovibond et al, 1995), (Maher-Edwards et al, 2010)

Metacognitions (or an unfavorable beliefs around one’s very own thoughts worrying uncontrollability, cognitive confidence, and also beliefs about the require to manage thoughts) deserve to be used independently of negative emotions to predict symptom severity. As a result, it might be a far better use of time and also resources come implement questionnaires the assess metacognitions, rather than merely depressive state or an adverse affect. Thus, the 30-Item Metacognitions Questionnaire may be a far better predictor the CFS severity than implementation the the DASS

Undergraduate students indigenous 2 Public universities Receiving Partial credit for taking Survey:

(Osman et al, 2012)

Results might be skewed/influenced since students obtained extra credit transaction for perfect the survey

484 teenagers with Depression, Anxiety and also Stress:

(Szabo et al, 2010)

Originally designed for adults, the DASS has a number of expressions and words that might not be acquainted to adolescents. The outcomes of the collection of Confirmatory element Analyses in this study show that while the constructs the Depression and also Anxiety are similar between adults and also 11,15 year old adolescents, the validity the the Tension/Stress construct, together measured through the adult DASS - 21, is questionable in this age group. The is possible that this details emotional state is quiet emerging throughout early adolescence. The DASS - 21 needs to be offered in young adolescent samples through caution, and also it is perhaps finest seen as a measure up of Anxiety and Depression till further evidence for the build validity that the Tension/Stress range becomes available. Because of its prove association with worry and also GAD in adult (Brown et al., 1997; Szabo ́ & Lovibond, 2000), an ability to delineate the lowest age group in ~ which the tension/stress syndrome is experienced by young civilization would make critical contribution towards a far better understanding that the development of worry and also its disorders in youth (Tracey et al, 1997)

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Adults Referred because that Psychotherapy with Symptoms that Depression:

(Ruwaard et al, 2012; n = 1500 complete adult participants with a GP referral for psychotherapy were treated at a Dutch online mental health and wellness clinic for symptoms of depression (n = 413), scare disorder (n = 139), posttraumatic stress and anxiety (n = 478), or burn out (n = 470); mean age = 40 years)

SEM** = 3.65


Patients Presenting for Assessment and Treatment in ~ the Phobia and Anxiety obstacle Clinic, facility for Stress and also Anxiety Disorders:

(Brown et al, 1997; n = 437 patient presenting because that assessment and also treatment at the Phobia and also Anxiety obstacle Clinic, facility for Stress and also Anxiety Disorders; average age = 36.1 years (10.55) and variety = 18 - 65 years; 63.6% were women)

A SEM was not established yet a reference allude to evaluate the kindness of right was created to help to to decrease the error the measurement

**Calculated from SD, making use of Cronbach"s alpha because that ICC

Patients Presenting for Assessment and also Treatment at the Phobia and also Anxiety disorders Clinic, facility for Stress and Anxiety Disorders:

(Brown et al, 1997)

Reliability the the DASS with repetitive trials of very same participants concluded the following: Depression average = 10.65 (9.3), Anxiety typical = 10.9 (8.12), Stress median = 21.1 (11.15)In the 2nd study DASS-Stress was shown to correlate more with PANAS-Negative affect (r = 0.72) than did DASS-Depression (r = 0.57) & DASS-Anxiety (r = 0.63). Likewise it was additionally concluded that stress correlated much more strongly with steps of worry than did stress and anxiety or depression.


Depression, Anxiety and Stress together Predictors that Postconcussion - choose Symptoms:

(Edmed et al, 2012; n = 71 nonclinical undergraduate students from Queensland university of Technology; mean period = 24.27 (8.93); age range = 17 – 54 year )

Depression subscale = 8.62 (8.96); stress subscale = 7.76 (6.63); anxiety subscale = 13.88 (9.69)

Patients Presenting for Assessment and also Treatment at the Phobia and Anxiety obstacle Clinic, center for Stress and also Anxiety Disorders:

(Brown et al, 1997)

Excellent test retest reliability shown that all 3 scales confirmed favorable temporal stability (r = 0.71 - 0.81). Out of the 437 patients initially offered the DASS, 20 patients to be randomly selected to come ago and were provided the DASS 2 weeks following their input evaluation. Check retest correlations failed to detect any type of systematic rise or diminish in scores over time, thus paired t exam were performed as an additional test that temporal stability: this t tests to be not significant for every 3 DASS scales.

Patients Presenting because that Assessment and Treatment in ~ the Phobia and also Anxiety obstacle Clinic, center for Stress and also Anxiety Disorders:

(Brown et al, 1997)

Excellent interior consistency for the entire sample because that Depression, Anxiety and also Stress, as well as within every diagnostic team (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96, 0.89, 0.93)


Undergraduate Students v no history of Head Injury of Neurological Impairment:

(Edmed et al, 2012)

Depression subscale: excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.95)Anxiety subscale: excellent inner consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.85)Stress subscale: excellent interior consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.93).

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Patients Diagnosed with Chronic tiredness Syndrome:

(Lovibond et al, 1995)

Depression subscale: excellent inner consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.93)Anxiety subscale: excellent inner consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.84)Stress subscale: excellent inner consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.88)


Undergraduate students:

(Osman et al, 2012; n = 887 undergraduate students, 363 men; age range = 18 – 35 years; mean age = 19.46 (2.71))

Excellent inner consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.82 - 0.97)Poor and Adequate depression factor linked with anxiety aspect = 0.66 and with stress factor = 0.77Adequate tension factor associated with stress aspect = 0.75 10


Adults Referred for Psychotherapy with Symptoms of Depression:

(Ruwaard et al, 2012)

Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.97)


Adolescents v Depression, anxiety and Stress: 

(Szabo et al, 2010; n = 484 high college students; mean age = 13.62 years; age selection = 11.83 – 15.67 years; 52% were boys)

Depression subscale: excellent inner consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.87)Anxiety subscale: adequate interior consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.79)Stress subscale: excellent interior consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.83)

Depression, Anxiety and Stress:

(Edmed et al, 2012)

The researcher predicted that relative to the various other DASS scales, DASS - Depression would correlate an ext strongly through other steps of depression (ratings of mood disorders). Relative to the various other DASS scales, DASS - anxiety would correlate more strongly with indices the fearfulness/autonomic arousal (ratings of scare disorders). Loved one to other DASS scales, DASS - anxiety would correlate an ext strongly with measures of worry (ratings that GAD). Additionally, DASS - anxiety was predicted to correlate more strongly v PANAS - an unfavorable Affect 보다 did DASS - Depression and DASS - Anxiety. Criterions the GAD include a many the symptoms of the stress range of DASS and therefore the symptom of GAD were reformulated to identify the 2 obstacle in DSM -IV.Excellent correlation through the anxiety subscale compared to the depression subscale (r = 0.60)

 (Osman et al, 2012)

Excellent correlation through MASQ - Anhedonic Depression (r = 0.65)Adequate correlation v MASQ - anxious Arousal (r = 0.50)Excellent correlation with regarded Stress scale (r = 0.73)Excellent correlation with MASQ - general Distress Depression (r = 0.68)Excellent correlation through MASQ - general Distress stress (r = 0.64)Excellent correlation with MASQ-Mixed Depression-Anxiety (r = 0.73)Excellent correlation through Beck Depression inventory - II (r = 0.80)Excellent correlation through Beck anxiety Inventory (r = 0.69)

Patients Presenting for Assessment and Treatment in ~ the Phobia and Anxiety obstacle Clinic, center for Stress and also Anxiety Disorders:

(Brown et al, 1997)

There is an intercorrelation between the three DASS scale in research 1 and also study 2. The zero-order intercorrelations among the 3 DASS scales were comparable in magnitude to the totally standardized phi coefficients derived in the confirmatory factor analysis of a three-factor modelAfter analyzing the scales from both studies, the DASS-Depression associated strongly through depression severity, yet only weakly through PD and GAD severity i m sorry demonstrated excellent discriminant validity of the scale and potential energy for discrimination among disordersThere is a high degree of overlap in between measures the anxiety and depression. This led researcher to explore the opportunity that the significant overlap, shown by these measures, reflects bad discriminant validity of these domains. Anxiety and also depression are taken into consideration on the exact same continuum


Study with an initial Year Psychology Students in ~ the college of brand-new South Wales:

(Lovibond et al, 1995)

The existing research gives support for the psychometric properties of the DASS scales and also their convergent and discriminant validity with other instruments occurred on clinical populations. The DASS scales not only carry out measures the anxiety and depression that have actually been specifically designed to maximize internal consistency and differentiation, however both of these scales room further distinguished from the associated state that tension/stress

DASS - Anxiety:

Excellent correlation against DASS - Depression (r = 0.72)Excellent correlation versus DASS - stress and anxiety (r = 0.78)Adequate correlation against MCQ - 30 - 1 (r = 0.48)Adequate correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 2 (r = 0.57)Adequate correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 3 (r = 0. 55)Adequate correlation against MCQ - 30 - 4 (r = 0.59)Poor correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 5 (r = 0.27)Adequate correlation versus CFQ - mental (r = 0.46)Poor correlation against CFQ - physics (r = 0.28)Adequate correlation versus RAND SF - 36 PF (r = 0.38)

DASS - Depression:

Excellent correlation against DASS - stress (r = 0.78)Adequate correlation versus DASS - MCQ -30 - 1 (r = 0.43)Adequate correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 2 (r = 0.55 )Adequate correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 3 (r = 0.59)Adequate correlation against MCQ - 30 - 4 (r = .54)Poor correlation against MCQ - 30 - 5 (r = 0.29)Adequate correlation versus CFQ - mental (r = 0.51)Adequate correlation versus CFQ - physics (r = 0.38)Adequate correlation against RAND - SF - 36 PF (r = 0.46)

DASS - Stress:

Adequate correlation against MCQ - 30 - 1 (r = 0. 45)Excellent correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 2 (r = 0.64)Adequate correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 3 (r = 0.53)Adequate correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 4 (r = 0.57)Adequate correlation versus MCQ - 30 - 5 (r = 0.37)Adequate correlation versus CFQ - psychological (r = 0.49 )Adequate correlation versus CFQ - physics (r = 0.31)Adequate correlation against RAND - SF - 36 PF (r = 0.42)


Adolescents with Depression, Anxiety and Stress:

(Szabo et al, 2010)

These correlation values space pertinent come the 3 variable structure the the authors deemed "the ideal fit" because that this population (which turned the end to it is in the same variable -loading framework of the adult DASS). Correlations amongst the determinants remained an extremely high, with correlation coefficients that (utilizing Pearson"s r):Excellent correlation in between DASS -Depression and DASS - stress (r = 0.83)Excellent correlation in between DASS-Depression and also DASS - Tension/Stress (r = 0.89)Excellent correlation between DASS -Tension/Stress and DASS - stress and anxiety (r = 0.94)

Acquired brain Injury Patients through Elevated mental Distress:

(Arundine et al, 2012; n = 17 chronic acquired mind injury (ABI) patients through elevated emotional distress; mean period = 42.94 (11.23); 9 males; years of education and learning = 12.71 (1.57); years article injury = 9.65 (8.35))

Lacks internal consistency because that TBI patients


Individuals v chronic Pain, Psychology Clinic patient with comparable Overall level of Depression, Anxiety and also a General populace Sample:

(Taylor et al, 2005)

Chronic pain sample:

Depression subscale: excellent inner consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.96)Anxiety subscale: excellent inner consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.89)Stress subscale: excellent interior consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.95)

Psychology Clinic sample:

Depression subscale: excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.96)Anxiety subscale: terrific internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.90)Stress subscale: fantastic internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.94)

General populace sample:

Depression subscale: excellent interior consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.95)Anxiety subscale: excellent interior consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.88)Stress subscale: excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.94)

Depression and also Anxiety with SCI:

(Mitchell et al, 2008)

Excellent correlation v the depression subscale when compared to the BC - PSI (r = 0.69)Excellent correlation v the stress subscale when compared to the BC - PSI (= 0.67)Excellent correlation v the anxiety subscale when compared to the BC - PSI (r = 0.83)Excellent correlations through the stress subscale contrasted to the stress subscale (= 0.70) and also the depression subscale (= 0.66)Excellent correlation through the DASS - 21 depression subscale and the BSI Depression (r = 0.70, p Excellent correlation between the DASS - 21 stress subscale and the BSI stress (r = 0.61, ns




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