It’s been 3 years since General Motors and also Chrysler filed for bankruptcy, yet with the political season in complete swing, the 2 presidential candidates have actually put the auto industry bailouts back in the general public eye, at the very least through the November election. However there’s just one Detroit automaker quiet in hock to U.S. Taxpayers and – assumption: v what? – it’s not GM or Chrysler.

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Ford Motor fan the federal government $5.9 exchange rate it obtained in June 2009, the same month GM filed because that bankruptcy. By Sept. 15, Ford needs to start paying that money back. In a government filing, the carmaker claimed $577 million is due within the next year, and the full amount have to be paid off by June 15, 2022.

The Obama Administration, dreaming the a million electrical cars ~ above the road by 2015, borrow Ford the money to help it pay for development of hybrids and EVs, and also to retool its factories to produce smaller, cleaner vehicles. If not defined as a “bailout” by any means, stop be honest: Ford’s loan – got at a crucial time once other resources of financing weren’t accessible to automakers or their suppliers – no doubt helped the carmaker endure the sector crisis and contributed come its strong market position today, specifically after the Obama administration finalized tougher fuel economy rules this week.


Indeed, lest we forget: the feds in 2009 were handing out fistfuls the cash to bolster the auto industry, beyond the $64 billion used to bail out GM and also Chrysler. Treasury staked one more $18.7 billion on rescuing the companies’ auto loan affiliates (it still owns 74% that Ally, previously known as GMAC). And the power Department doled out billions more to Ford and also others to maintain auto-making tasks in the U.S. When steering the industry toward cleaner vehicles.

“We have an historical opportunity to help ensure that the next generation of fuel-efficient cars and also trucks room made in America,” chairman Barack Obama claimed in a statement on June 23, 2009 announcing the loans to Ford and two others. Energy Secretary Steven Chu added: "By supporting vital technologies and also sound business plans, we can jumpstart the manufacturing of fuel reliable vehicles in America. This investments will come ago to ours country many times over – by creating new jobs, reduce our dependence on oil, and also reducing ours greenhouse gas emissions."

No company was a enlarge beneficiary of the DOE’s green auto funding initiative than Ford. It received two-thirds that the $8.8 exchange rate loaned under the department’s Advanced an innovation Vehicle production program. Congress appropriated $25 billion for that regime in so late 2008, throughout the waning work of the bush Administration, approximately the same time the auto agency CEOs were gaining grilled on Capitol Hill.


The various other ATVM recipients were Nissan ($1.6 billion), Tesla electric motors ($465 million), Fisker Automotive ($529 million) and also the car Production team ($50 million), a start-up agency promoting a handicapped-accessible van the runs on herbal gas.

The DOE spent an additional $2.4 exchange rate in commonwealth stimulus money – most of the in Michigan – to administer matching sponsor to help companies construct manufacturing framework for advanced batteries and also EV components. Uneven the ATVM loan program, those grants don’t need to be paid back.

So exactly how did all that government assist for the auto market work out? The outcomes are mixed, in ~ best. Chrysler, regardless of its lengthy odds, is act surprisingly well under Fiat ownership. Effective turnarounds in ~ GM and also Ford in the U.S. Space weighed down by difficulties in Europe.

But car buyers, the seems, weren’t practically as excited around electric vehicles together President Obama, that has because backed turn off his 2015 EV target. Many of the government-backed battery factories space operating well below their manufacturing capacity. Many recipients have shifted their focus away from electrical vehicles toward grid warehouse opportunities. At the very least three recipients that federal resources collapsed or room struggling to continue to be afloat. Battery-maker A123 Systems, desperate because that money, fell into the hands of a Chinese auto supplier. Another, Ener1, walk bankrupt and is currently owned by a Russian organization tycoon.

If you’re keeping score (and you should be) here’s a outline of how some the the government’s biggest auto sector investments rotate out:

GM: repaid $23.1 exchange rate of the $49.5 exchange rate it got from the U.S. Treasury, including every one of its outstanding loans. However Treasury still owns 500 million shares, or 32%, that GM stock. To recoup its full investment, GM stock demands to struggle $52.80 per share. It’s right now trading about $21. GM additionally received a $106 million matching grant to construct a battery factory in Brownstown, MI, whereby it is assembling battery packs because that the Chevrolet Volt plug-in vehicle using cell imported indigenous Korea.

Chrysler: repaid $9.2 billion, fulfilling that debt responsibilities to the U.S. And also Canadian governments, and also is currently owned through Italian automaker Fiat (58.5%) and a health care trust because that UAW retirees (41.5%). Overall, taxpayers shed $1.3 billion on the Chrysler bailout. In complete recovery mode, Chrysler is at this time the fastest-growing carmaker in the world.

Ford: used its $5.9 billion loan to convert two van plants to small-car production and also to develop much more fuel-efficient vehicles prefer the Ford focus EV and C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid, on revenue this fall. Loan repayments begin in September. Ford claims it will spend $14 billion over the next seven year on advanced-technology vehicles.

Nissan: obtained a $1.4 billion loan to construct a battery plant and also modify one existing car factory in Tennessee to produce the electrical Nissan sheet (currently imported from Japan). Manufacturing of battery packs starts at the finish of September; sheet production follows in December. Though it has actually sold just 14,000 Leafs in the U.S. Because December 2010, the agency hasn’t backed off its U.S. Sales target of 150,000 Leafs every year. A spokesman claims Nissan will start repaying that is loan after U.S. Manufacturing begins.

Tesla: used its $465 million loan to build a battery plant and also retool part of a previous Toyota-GM manufacturing facility to develop the model S, its second electric car. So far, just 100 of the cars have actually been built, fine shy the its 2012 goal of 5,000. However the firm says it’s on track. Loan repayments begin in December. Tesla, which go public in July 2010, hopes to break even by 2013.

Fisker: received only $193 million the its $529 million DOE loan because of to let go milestones. Its very first plug-in hybrid, the $100,000 Karma built in Finland, suffered quality problems. Its following model, the Nina, and a new factory in Delaware, room on hold while the company sorts the end its problems and seeks alternative funding sources.

Vehicle manufacturing Group: used a $50 million DOE loan to include a compressed natural gas version of that is MV-1 handicapped available van. Therefore far, 300 that the 2,100 vans produced at a tree in Indiana operation on CNG. Together fleet sales rise, the start-up firm expects in ~ least half to be natural gas vehicles. VPG began repaying that loan late last year.

Johnson Controls: the leading lead-acid battery machine for autos used a $300 million DOE grant to develop an advanced-battery cabinet plant in Michigan, and is moving work here from Europe. It predicted sluggish acceptance that EVs, and is instead supplying battery for other fuel-saving technologies, prefer microhybrids, which close up door down when the vehicle stops. The arrangement was because that 680 work at full capacity. Today, it has fewer 보다 100.

A123 Systems: drew $129 million of a $249 million DOE approve to build two battery tree in Michigan. However demand didn’t materialize, resulting in unused capacity. Meanwhile, A123 is replacing early batteries that had actually quality issues. Its result financial distress attracted China’s Wangxiang Group, which agreed come invest approximately $450 million for an 80 percent stake in the company. A123, i m sorry employs 1200 world in the U.S., says it will proceed to manufacture batteries in America, focusing on other industries like network storage and also hybrid buses and also trucks.

Dow Kokam: the share venture in between Dow Chemical, a oriental battery device and a French engineering company used that $161 million DOE approve to construct an advanced-battery manufacturing facility in Michigan. It started manufacturing in June, v 120 employees. With EV demand slower than expected, that is targeting other customers like shipment fleets, the Defense Department and tug watercraft operators.

LG Power: U.S. Subsidiary of oriental battery maker used its $151 million DOE grant to develop a battery tree in Michigan to supply cells because that the Chevrolet Volt and others. However with need lower than expected, the plant, which has actually 200 employees, there is no yet began production.

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EnerDel: drew $55 million the its $118 million DOE approve to expand battery production in Indiana. An invest in Think, a Norwegian EV customer, turn sour, and also EnerDel’s publicly traded parent, Ener1, filed for bankruptcy in January. Co-founder Boris Zingarevich, a Russian hardwood tycoon v ties to the Russian government, took regulate by investing one more $86 million. That set off alarm bells in Washington since EnerDel’s battery are provided in some army applications. ~ exiting bankruptcy in March, EnerDel installed new management and also moved that is headquarters to Indiana. It at this time supplies battery packs for the Volvo C30 electric vehicle but is moving its focus to make batteries for mass transit, grid storage and also industrial uses.